Obesity is the medical condition of a person when he/she carries excessive body fat resulting in excess weight. Obesity is measured by the BMI (Body Mass Index) ratio. BMI ratio between 25 and 29.9 is considered overweight, while that above thirty is obese. Read what is Obesity and Metabolic syndrome and how probiotics can help in fixing this issue.
TYPES OF OBESITY
There are different classifications of obesity. Depending on the area of deposition of fat is,
Peripheral – Excess fat in hips, thighs, and butt.
Central – Excess fat in and around the abdomen.
Combination of central and peripheral obesity.
A recent study by the University of Sheffield, UK and Harvard School of Public Health, US has reported six different categories of obesity namely,
A young and healthy female that has a low obesity-related disease.
Heavy drinking males.
Unhappy and anxious middle-aged, mainly women having low mental health.
Affluent and healthy elderly having high blood pressure due to high alcohol use.
Physically sick, but happy elderly having various chronic diseases.
Poorest health, including those with the most poverty, suffering the highest number of chronic disorders.
Obesity in India has reached epidemic status in the 21st century. National Health Family Survey (NFHS) conducted a study in 2016 found out that 18.6% of healthy Indian men and 20.7% healthy Indian women in between the age group of 15 to 49 are obese. This is due to the changes in lifestyle with the intake of more processed unhealthy fast foods and sedentary lifestyles.
Syndrome/Diseases/Disorders related to Obesity:
High Triglycerides and low HDL (healthy) cholesterol.
Type II diabetes mellitus
High Blood pressure
Cancer like that of cervix, uterus, ovaries, colon, breast, rectum, liver, kidney, gall bladder and prostate.
Sleep apnea or difficulty to breath during sleep.
Sexual problems like erectile dysfunction.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver
Metabolic Syndrome: Criteria
Metabolic syndrome is a health condition when a person is affected by the combination of multiple metabolic problems, namely central obesity, high blood sugar, high blood pressure, high serum LDL and triglycerides, and low serum HDL level.
Obesity-Induced Metabolic disorder / Syndrome:
It is mostly associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular heart disease and Type II diabetes. The primary cause is central obesity. The pathophysiology is very complicated as an infinite number of related and interdependent factors are at play. The primary triggering agent is stress, unhealthy diet especially consuming high sugar containing foods, aging, genetics, sedentary lifestyle with physical inactivity, interrupted sleep and alcohol abuse.
Obesity changes the function of adipose tissue cells mainly by the increased secretion of various products from the adipocyte. They are as follows.
Non-Esterified Fatty Acids or NEFA. NEFA is derived from the lipolysis of adipose tissue, which is the primary source of body nutrient during fasting periods. Excessive NEFA leads to insulin resistance the primary cause of Type II diabetes.
Inflammatory Cytokines. Obesity increases the secretion of cytokines like TNF alpha, IL-6 and other cytokines from adipocyte that impairs insulin-mediated lipolysis activity. It is also supposed to increase the synthesis of CRP and fibrinogen in the liver leading to fatty liver. It also increases the activity of macrophages in atheromatous plaques in arteries and heart increasing the risk of CHD/ Chronic Heart Diseases.
Increased synthesis of the protein PAI-1 resulting in fatty liver.
Atherogenic dyslipidemia, a condition of high amounts of blood triglycerides, LDL and VLDL lipids, and low amounts of HDL resulting in the risk of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease (ASCVD).
Obesity results in high blood pressure, which in turn increases hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, stroke, heart failure, CHD, and chronic renal failure.
Elevated plasma glucose leads to diabetes. Diabetes is mostly associated with ASCVD.
Prothrombic State. Obesity impairs the coagulation and fibrinolysis functions of the blood resulting in a condition called prothrombic state. This elevates the development of atherosclerosis by the formation of a large thrombus during atherosclerotic plaque rupture. This causes acute coronary syndrome.
Proinflammatory State. Obesity impairs the lipid metabolism that causes the invasion of macrophages leading to the proliferation of smooth muscles. All these lead s to a state of chronic inflammation by macrophages along with elevated CRP levels results in the development of ASCVD.
Probiotics for Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome
Obesity changes the gut microflora by the accumulation of harmful bacterial components like lipopolysaccharides.
Probiotics help in weight loss in two ways, namely:
Release of the GLP-1 hormone that reduces the appetite and helps in burning fats.
Increase of ANGPL4 protein that decreases the rate of fat deposition.
Probiotics also inhibit the absorption of dietary fats resulting in increased fat excretion from the body via fecal matters.
Probiotics produce vitamin K and other B- vitamins that help to break down fibers into beneficial short-chained fatty acids.
Ingestion of Probiotics like Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria improves the gut microflora. Lactobacillus rhamnosus has been particularly studied to be the best probiotic for weight loss. Additionally, Lactobacillus gasseri intake has been found to cause effective loss of belly fat. L. fermentumand L. amylovorus are also been found to reduce body weight by the intake of probiotic-rich yogurt during a span of six weeks.